Nine hole abalone breeding and breeding techniques
Haliotis diversicolor suertexta is an attachment and benthic mollusk belonging to the mollusks in the taxonomy, the first to the Asian steel, the original gastropod, the genus Baco, and the genus. The shell is flat and its spiral tower part is located at the back of the body. It extends from the spiral hole column of the tower to the front shell edge, and opens at the front of the body. There are about 6 to 9 holes. Covered by the inner secretory nacre, the shell mainly inhabits the intertidal zone of the coast to water depths of 6m, and likes to live in the dark rocky pores. Its distribution area includes warm sea areas such as Japan, South Korea, southern China's coast, and Taiwan. It is adapted to water environments with high temperature and salinity, and it also grows well in summer. However, the adaptability to low temperature is poor, and the optimum temperature for growth is 20Â°C-28Â°C. When the water temperature is lower than 15Â°C, the growth rate is obviously decreased. If the temperature is lower than 10Â°C for a long time, it will easily cause a large number of deaths. Nine hole abalone compared with local variegated abalone, has the characteristics of rapid growth, large individual and excellent quality. 1 Nine hole borer nursery technology 1.1 Selection of breeding site Selection of areas close to the water source can reduce the cost of the water line, low power consumption, and large amount of water. Pay attention to the quality of the water source. Seedlings are suitable for growth in seawater with a salinity of 28 to 35 ã€‚. 1.2 Breeding method Nine borer breeding season from July to November, the peak period is from August to October. The reproduction process is as shown in the figure. 1.2.1 Select species to select individuals with intact, non-damaged, non-adherent objects, and more than 6cm of abalone. Nine hole abalone dioecious, maturity in accordance with the degree of fullness of the reproductive nest to judge, the greater the fullness of sperm and ovary, the more mature. The species used for reproduction is preferably 2-3 years old. The genitalia nest is located on the side of the ventral feet. It can be seen as if it is a hornlike reproductive nest. The male nest's reproductive nest is milky or yellowish in color. Shellfish's reproductive nest is purple or dark green, and the male and female ratio is 3:1 or 4:10. 1.2.2 Cleaning The shells of the shells often obtained in the aquaculture ponds are often accompanied by sludge or excreted sediments. Therefore, these eggs should be cleaned before the egg is collected to avoid mixing of eggs and sludge and affect the hatching rate. The brush can be used to clean the shell surface dirt when cleaning, but it can not be brushed to the stomach part, otherwise the species shell is very vulnerable. 1.2.3 Dry out the well-cleaned shellfish in a cool place with the shell facing down and the gastropod facing up. 5 hours - 1.5 hours. In order to make male and female progenitors discharge their products at the same time, females are 0.5 hours older than males. 1.2.4 Physical stimulation Spawning and production of ultraviolet light directly irradiated with pro-Balthy seawater at a dose of 300.800 mWh/L, thereafter placed at a light bulb 20 to 30 cm away from the water (220v, 40 to 60w) Open (and the role of lighting and warming). This method is simple and the productivity is higher than that of ultraviolet irradiation alone. However, the UV lamp irradiation time should be strictly controlled so as not to harm the pro-Bau. This method can elicit labor during the day, which greatly facilitates the operation and observation. 1.2.5 The fertilization process is completed within 1 hour of spawning and ejaculation. The activity of sperm and egg begins to decrease, which directly affects the hatching rate. 1.2.6 Eggs are sucked out of the ovary by siphoning, so they are put into a 40-50L water tank with 600,000-800,000 eggs per tank (15 to 20 grains of fertilized eggs per mI of water, or 400 ton of bottom area per cm2. 500 eggs are more suitable), adding 15 to 20 ml of diluted serum, the amount of sperm should be appropriate, generally attract a small amount of eggs under the microscope examination, there are several sperm outside each egg membrane can be. Use a 300-mesh sieve to make a fishing net, pour the eggs into the net, and rinse slowly. Washing eggs is generally completed before the embryo develops to a 16-cell stage. 1.2.7 Egg hatching density should be controlled at 15-20/mI or 400-500/cm2 at the bottom. Incubation temperature above 22Â°C. At a water temperature of 26Â°C-27Â°C, fertilized eggs develop to tandem larvae from 6 to 7 hours; after 12 to 15 hours (after fertilization), they develop to face plate larvae; 43 to 46 hours after fertilization can develop to early larval larvae. 1.2.8 The artificial management of the attachment period can be transferred into the nursery pond when the hatchling develops into the face plate larvae. The density of the larvae is controlled at 1-3 cells/mL. The seedling plate is hung on the nursery pool to allow the larvae to attach. Do not change the water while the larvae are floating until they are attached, but they should be properly inflated and the larvae can be inflated after running. The picking plate is the indispensable attachment base for the larvae to enter the pupa life. At the same time, benthic diatoms are attached to the plate to provide the larvae with the source of the diet. Diatoms must be inoculated before harvesting. Benthic diatoms are preferably nave and algae. Practice has proved that diatom culture environment light in 2000 to 3000 lux. At the same time, the use of a good light-transmitting material as an attachment base for flowing water culture has a good effect. However, the growth of diatom bait is relatively slow. When the amount of larvae attached is greater than the limit load of the bait board, the â€œwhite boardâ€ phenomenon will occur prematurely, so that the juvenile abalone does not reach the peeling specification and no bait is eaten. In addition, it is generally found that the seedling pool water from the brown to talk about or seedling board color change should promptly pay attention to fertilization or inoculation of diatoms. Also pay attention to the gas supply, gas must be sufficient to ensure that there is enough dissolved oxygen in the pool. 1.2.9 Peel the plastic shell on the wave board to a length of 0.6-0.7cm, then begin to peel off the cage to cultivate, peel and cultivate. Initially, the main feeding was Jiang Lei and the combined bait. In the summer, it was fed once every 1.2 days. In winter, it was fed once every 2 to 3 days. The daily exchange volume of pool water was determined by 250%-300% of the entire pond water body. When peeling, try to make the size separate. Uneven size will affect the survival rate and growth rate. When the abalone reaches 1.5-2cm, it can enter the management stage of cultivation. 3 Artificial culture of abalone abalone 3.1 Abalone breeding management The juvenile abalones are put into the box of the raising and management stage. Controlling the density after exfoliation is the key to ensure the rapid growth of abalone seedlings. It is recommended to adopt the following density: 1.5-2.0cm , 50/cage 33.5-4.0cm, 30-40/cage; 4.5-5cm, 20-30/cage. The cage is cuboid with a size of 0.4m0.3m 0.1m. All six surfaces are injection molded into a mesh shape to ensure good water flow. A movable door is provided on one side. The discharge of the cages is stacked in groups of about 10 and 20 in a row to ensure good water flow and a movable door on one side. The discharge of the cages is about 10 stacks, 20 in series, one underneath each cage, and the bottom is about 20 cm away from the bottom of the tank. A walkway is left in the middle of each row of cages, and the walkway width is about 70cm. All the doors should be oriented toward the channel for easy management. The south ponds are mostly rectangular cement pools. The single pools are generally 1.2 to 1.7m deep, and the area is 20 to 402d. The bottom of the pool is laid at the bottom of the cages. . The water supply capacity must be more than 5 times of the aquaculture water to keep the water flowing day and night. Although the supply of gas according to the surface of the water surface evenly tumbling out is appropriate (water depth is less than 1.5m use 20 ~ 35KPa, more than 1.5m use 35-50KPa), the entire culture process must not stop gas. Cultivation requires that the amount of water changed every day is 3-5 times the amount of water. One manifestation of the lack of water and gas for growing abalone is the slow growth of abalone and the whitening of the body's spiral. Although this method has a large investment, the output per unit of water is 5-6 times higher than that of a plane cage culture, and the breeding cycle is short. 3.2 The feed is dominated by river fences (fine basalt ramifications). When there are no tiers, frozen salted kelp and dried kelp are used instead. The seaweeds like dried kelp, algae, and horseweed are not favored. Classes can also achieve better growth results. The dishes must be fresh and clean to prevent pollution. Three-point hunger and seven-point fullness are recommended when feeding, and feeding too much harm is more than benefits. Not only is feed wasted, but also vegetables that are not finished can be easily spoiled and rot, causing abalone. It is advisable to feed a small amount of ground nutrients, generally feeding the vegetables once every 4 days in the higher temperature season and feeding them once every 7 days in the winter season. About 100g/cage times, according to the size of the abalone, seasonal changes in flexibility, in short, there must be no leftovers. 3.3 Hygienic management The health management of the nine-hole abalone has two aspects: (1) Hygienic management of tools and equipment. Tools and equipment used for abalone breeding, such as abalone boxes, buckets, water basins, water scoops, pressure bricks, etc. Pad box brackets, as well as culture ponds, must be cleaned before use, and then use high potassium acid disinfection, and then use, and in the use of regular cleaning and disinfection. Each time the feed tanks, aquariums, bricks, etc. are combined, they should be thoroughly cleaned. Especially in the hot season, health management should be strengthened. (2) Hygienic management of feed: After the dish is shipped, it should be cleaned immediately, and then the inflatable water in the pool of the deceased person should be kept in reserve. The dish must be fresh and not stored for too long. If it is found that the food is deteriorating, it cannot be used anymore. Each time you feed the dish, you must take out the previously uneaten food and thoroughly rinse the box and feed it again. In addition, vegetables should not be immersed in fresh water or rain. Once the dish is fed with fresh water or rain, it will cause a large number of deaths caused by diseases of the abalone's digestive system. 3.4 Bao, who grows up into Bao's merchandise management, can grow up to more than 5M in sales. When selling goods, Bao should pay attention to the following issues. Abalone is susceptible to illness at the turn of the spring and summer each year until late October. During this period, it is generally not easy to move them. If you want to sell goods, you must sell your abalone. Other not-for-sale abalone do not Toggle. Generally into the winter can be completed for the sale of a complete classification of Bao. First of all, the pro-Bun used for culture can be selected and boxed separately, and the female and male sub-pools can be raised to prepare the seedlings for raising the temperature. Other products can be packed into the pool by large, medium and small containers for sale.