I. Scope This technical regulation provides regulations for the management of off-season cover shiitake mushrooms. This technology is suitable for planting shiitake mushrooms in the off season. Second, the choice of cultivation sites 1, the cultivation site should be selected in a good ecological environment, fresh air, excellent water quality, soil is not polluted, 300 meters around the ground without a variety of sources of pollution, things are mountains, light is shorter, large temperature difference between day and night Tian, â€‹â€‹it is best to have spring water or reservoir water, the terrain is flat, drainage and irrigation are convenient, and transportation is convenient. 2, often attacked by hail, flood-flooded fields do not choose to do mushroom farm. III. Social Conditions 1. Farmers who cover trees and grow shiitake mushrooms must have the technology and funds to fulfill the regulations stipulated in the Measures for the Administration of Edible Fungi Strains of the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China. 2. No technology must be trained and conducted under the guidance of technicians or paired with old farmers. Fourth, bacteria bag production 1, selection of cultivation season. In order to ensure normal fruiting from June to September, it is advisable to make bags in late November and early March of the following year. 2, cultivation matrix. Use sawdust, grassy, â€‹â€‹cottonseed husks. Wood chips, grassy grass, cottonseed husks, bran, corn flour, etc., require fresh, dry, non-mosquitoes, no mildew, and residual pesticides. Cultivation materials formula: A, hardwood (dry) wood chips 79%, bran 16.56%, corn flour 2%, sucrose 1.2%, gypsum powder 1.2%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.02%, magnesium sulfate 0.02%; B, broad-leaved trees (dry 60% of wood chips, 20% of grassy (dry) powder, 13.49% of bran, 1% of corn powder, 2% of rice bran, 0.8% of sucrose, 1.6% of gypsum powder, 0.15% of activated carbon, 0.41% of ash, dihydrogen phosphate Potassium 0.15%, Magnesium sulphate 0.15%, Superphosphate 0.25%; C, Hardwood (dry) wood chips 50%, Cotton seed husk 30%, Bran 17%, Sucrose 1%, Gypsum powder 1%, Activated carbon 0.15%, Plant ash 0.4 %, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.15%, magnesium sulfate 0.15%, calcium superphosphate 0.15%. 3, bagging. According to the selected formula, the culture material is mixed evenly, the moisture content is 60%, and the bagging machine is usually charged with 2-3 person rotations, one person adds material, and one person bags. During operation, the tube bag is put into the discharge port with one hand, and the other hand is forced against the bottom of the bag when feeding. Slowly push it backwards until one bag is full, and then fasten the bag mouth with a yarn. Fifth, sterilization and inoculation 1, sterilization. High pressure (1.5Mpa 125Â°C) sterilization 2h or normal pressure (100Â°C) sterilization 10h-12h. 2. Inoculation. The inoculation environment should be clean, dry, and sterilized. After the material is cooled to below 28Â°C, it should be placed in the inoculation box or sterile room. Inoculum box or sterile room should be placed in an appropriate amount of disinfectant, sealed and fumigated for 0.5h before inoculation. Each bag of cultivar is connected to 20-30 bags of cultivation bags. 6, mycelial culture 1, training room. It should be sterilized regularly, requiring cleanliness, dryness, ventilation, and shading. 2, training methods. The inoculation is face-up with a "well" shape. 3, training management. The temperature of the bacterium room is required to be 22-25Â°C, and the air relative humidity is 65-70%; the shading room is made dark by the straw curtain, so that the bacterium room is basically dark; the window is opened for ventilation and the air in the bacterium room is kept fresh; one week after inoculation In combination with the turning inspection, timely removal of bad bacteria bags. 4, remove the plastic exhaust. After 15-20 days, when the mycelial spread in the bag has reached 8-10cm in diameter, the tape or tape on the inoculation port can be disassembled to avoid oxygen deficiency in the bag and affect the growth of hyphae in the next stage. In some places, plastering has been dispensed with, and instead of using paraffin wax, the wax on the inoculation hole should be removed. Care must be taken when unpacking the tape to prevent it from tearing. 5, bag quality standards. Under normal circumstances, when the inoculation of bacteria bags is 50-60 days, the hyphae can basically fill the bag and continue to cultivate. The hyphae will gradually increase, and white fungal membranes will form in some places. Then the surface of the culture medium will start to wrinkle and shrink a little. Secret light yellow liquid. The bacteria bag is basically mature and can be moved to the mushroom shed for further management of color conversion. Seven, remove the bag color cover soil 1, off the bag. Covering the land with mushrooms is required to be cultured for 90 days to 110 days. The fungus bags can be matured basically and can be removed. The skein bag plastic was cut with a sharp blade. Both ends of the bag were peeled off, and the bag was peeled off. 2, mushroom mushroom disinfection. Mushrooms are cleaned and rinsed clean. Rinse each face with 6Kg of bleach or 50Kg of lime water for 2 to 3 days. Spray 2Kg of copper sulphate on the surface. Cover the film and sterilize for 3 days. Uncover the film, cover the surface with 2cm sand, use a bottle of phosphorus octoate, and replenish the water with 70kg of formaldehyde in water of 2.5Kg and cover the membrane for 3 days. After the membrane is opened, use 0.5Kg of potassium permanganate to dilute the water with 70Kg. Sprinkle on the noodles, then sprinkle with a layer of lime before draining. 3, color change. After the bacterium bags were platooned on the surface of the bowl, the film was covered in a timely manner, so that the edges of the bags were removed while the film was removed. After 3 days of covering the film, all the films had to be uncovered on the 4th day. At this time, the bacteria was found, and the treatment was promptly cleaned and sprinkled. Lime powder covers the film. In the morning and evening of the fifth day, strengthen the ventilation once and half an hour to 1 hour. Rinse the fungus tube with clean water, and combine the control of the bacteria to make it turn color. 4, bacteria covered soil. The soil covering the fungus tube shall be made of sandy soil and soil less than 30cm above the topsoil, excavate the heart and soil of the industry, and be exposed to the sun for 2 days, sifted through the debris and mix with 10% lime powder or firewood and ash. After the tube is turned to 80-90%, stop watering for 4-5 days, fill in a well-prepared covering soil, and slightly pressurize, until the tube surface is covered with 3cm, so that the bacteria tube is completely covered. During the daytime, no membranes are covered, no membranes are covered in the evening, and the frequency of watering increases. Whether it is sunny or rainy days, it is necessary to pour into the field sulcus to induce flowing stream water or mountain springs or reservoir water. It is better to change it once a day. Membrane, sunny day is not covered. Eight, mushroom management 1, reminder mushrooms. Bacteria tube after the coloring period of watering management, stop watering 4-5d, and then use the wet alternate method for mushroom, or the water poured into the surface of the fungus tube 2-3 times, you can produce A large number of small mushrooms should not be used to shake mushroom when it is not a last resort. In order to protect the fungus tube and promote the production of high-quality mushrooms, excess mushroom buds must be removed. 2, pre-management. Land-covered shiitake mushrooms are mostly used for off-season cultivation to fill the market demand for fresh mushrooms in the summer. The first batch of mushrooms that took off after bagging usually lasted from early May to early June. The temperature ranged from low to high, but the nighttime temperatures were low and the temperature difference between day and night was large. It was also during the rainy season and the humidity was high, which was beneficial to fruit body differentiation and kinking. As the temperature gradually rises, ventilation should be strengthened. Normally, the membrane will be hung high and the rain will not be filtered. When the first batch of shiitake mushrooms is harvested, drain the gutters and stop the watering to reduce the humidity of the mushroom bed so that the hyphae of the mushroom can recover and accumulate nutrients. The traces of the mushrooms (depressions) are already hyphae. Restoration of landslides, irrigation of gingival crevicular water, and enhancement of watering stimuli, facilitate rapid kink formation of the next fruit body. (3) Mid-term management. This period is from late June to late July. It is the highest temperature season in the whole year, and there are few mushrooms. At present, the county's land-covered shiitake mushrooms rely on natural air temperature, combined with artificial regulation, and the medium-term management mainly reduces the temperature of the mushroom bed and promotes it. The occurrence of fruiting bodies generally leads to irrigation of spring water or reservoir water to increase the flow, increase the ventilation volume and reduce the temperature, and prevent the high-temperature burning bacteria tube. (4) Late management. This period is from late August to the end of September, has been hot in summer, the temperature has dropped, fungus tube has been in the early, medium-term nutrient consumption of mushrooms, mushroom mushroom mycelium is not as strong as the previous period. Therefore, the tube management at this stage should be careful to prevent the tube and rotten mushrooms, if you find bacteria can be used when 5% of the coal phenol soap or 100 times carbendazim smear the affected area, the next day and then 5% lime water Brushing and moving the cyst bacteria tube to other places for centralized management to prevent infection. 9. Harvesting According to the needs of the international market, the picking standard for fresh-keeping land-covered mushrooms is usually higher than that for dehydrated mushrooms. It is generally required that the shiitake mushrooms should be separated from each other. When the mussels have not completely broken, they should be picked, and the scales on the cap should be preserved as much as possible. When loading, to prevent wood chips or other debris falling on the site of the bacteria fold, it is necessary to keep the appearance of fresh mushrooms clean. X. Pest Control 1. The principle of prevention and control. Adhere to the principle of prevention and comprehensive prevention and control, and strictly control the prevention and control of chemical drugs. 2, the main disease prevention. The main diseases are fungi (Trichoderma, Neurospora, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus) and bacteria and viruses. The prevention method is to keep the environment clean and hygienic, to find that the disease is cleared in time, and to carry out detoxification treatment. The use of chemical pesticides is prohibited during fruiting. 3, the main pest control. The main insect pests are Concha sinensis, Mulberry, Pseudoarmor, Moths, Black-winged termites, cockroaches and nematodes. Control methods: Prevent insect pests by the barrier method, dig trenches around the mushroom field, and shave the net around the top of the mushroom shed to prevent pests from flying in. It is forbidden to use chemical pesticides during fruiting.
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