Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Diseases, Pests and Miscellaneous Mushrooms of Lentinus
1. Comprehensive prevention and control measures for shiitake mushrooms cultivation? (1) After strict identification of good strains for use in determining the fine varieties for production, whether the strains are contaminated with bacteria is the most basic condition for high-quality strains. High quality strains can be determined by visual inspection and culture. Where the mycelium is thick, open the bottle stopper with special fragrance, can be regarded as high-quality bacteria species. If conditions permit, they should also be sampled and cultivated. At the same time, hyphae viability can also be checked. (2) Strictly handle good bag processing plastic bags should be selected thickness uniform, no trachoma, elastic, high temperature, high pressure polypropylene plastic bags, culture materials should not be too wet, feed water ratio is controlled at 1:1.1 ~ 1.2 The load is tight and moderate, and the inside and the outside of the table are the same; both ends of the bag should be fastened and fused with flames. In the high temperature season sterilizing bag, 1:800 times carbendazim solution can be used to mix and control the bacteria. (3) Strictly sterilizing and sterilizing under atmospheric pressure should stabilize the temperature in the stove at 100Â°C for 8 hours. When the bacteria bags in the pot are discharged, there must be gaps in the middle to make the steam flow evenly heated. To avoid cooling water or burning fire and other reasons caused half-way cooling; from spices to sterilization must be completed within 8 hours, from the beginning of sterilization to the stove temperature can not exceed 100 Â°C more than 5 hours, in order to avoid material deterioration. (4) Doing a good job in environmental sanitation and purifying the air to minimize the density of spores in the air is the most active and effective method for reducing the contamination of bacteria. Bottling, sterilizing, cooling, inoculation, training rooms and other places all require daily cleaning. After the heavy rain, we must conduct a centralized cleaning. Adhere to daily cross-spraying or spraying of 0.2% soapy water or 3% to 4% aqueous solution of mineral water, 5% formaldehyde, 1:500x 50% carbendazim solution and 5% to 20% lime water every day in the air and on the ground. Burn wastes and pollutants in time or immerse them in pots to prevent pollution of the environment and air. (5) Strict asepsis operation The inoculation room should be strictly disinfected; pre-inoculation of strains before inoculation should be done; during the inoculation process, the strainer bottle should be flame sealed with an alcohol lamp; the inoculation tool should be flame-sterilized; the bacteria should be kept as a whole; It is necessary to avoid people walking and talking; timely clean up the waste in the vaccination room and keep the room clean. (6) The scientific arrangement of the inoculation season must scientifically arrange the inoculation season based on the temperature requirements of the mycelium growth and fruit body development of the mushroom. Premature inoculation or high summer climate in the summer and autumn will not only increase the pollution rate but also adversely affect the growth of mycelia. However, if the inoculation is too late, the pollution rate will be lower, but the growth period of the autumn mushroom will be shortened, which will affect the yield. Inoculation is best when the daily average temperature is stable at around 25Â°C. When the summer temperatures are high, the inoculation time should be arranged from midnight to the early morning of the next day. (7) Improving environmental factors The speed and severity of bacterial growth depends largely on a variety of environmental factors. In particular, ventilation should be used to ventilate the fungal populations on mushroom culms or molds. Temperature, humidity and other environmental factors conducive to mushroom growth and development, mushroom mycelium vigor, strong resistance, bacteria is not easy to occur, on the contrary, the bacteria will take advantage of and quickly occur. Therefore, in the daily management work, it is also an important preventive measure to create the environmental conditions suitable for the growth and development of L. edodes as much as possible. (8) To reduce the occurrence of mold when the mycelium does not heal, to close the doors and windows (ventilation several times after quantitative window opening), remove the covered film, and then cover the measures to control the mold. If individual cultivars produce mold, do not rush to deal with it. Treat the mycelium before healing, but increase the number of times of tilting the membrane and increase ventilation and cooling and dehumidification in the cultivation room. (9) Molds occur on the surface of the cultivating block or the fungus tube, but they have not yet been fed. Normally, they can be washed with lime water with a pH of 8 to 10 to change the pH value and inhibit mold growth. If the mold is severe, it has already penetrated into the material and can be used to dig out the mold and then make up the cultivated species. Molds or tubes with particularly severe moulds can be taken outdoors, and the molds can be rinsed with water. After drying for 2 to 3 days, 0.5% peroxyacetic acid (CH?3COOH) can be sprayed to receive a significant control effect. (10) Strengthen the inspection In the season when the temperature is high, the indoor bacteria bags should not be too dense to prevent excessive growth due to high-temperature hyphae or burns, affecting the yield. After germination for 5 to 6 days, it is necessary to carry out a careful inspection on a bag-by-bag basis and find that the contaminated bacteria bag is removed. For lightly contaminated bacterial bags, 20% formaldehyde or 5% lithocarbonic acid or 95% alcohol can be injected into the contaminated area and then affixed with sterile tape. For Penicillium and Trichoderma heavily contaminated bacterial bags, add appropriate amount of new material and re-inoculate and inoculate; the Mycobacterium acremonium contaminated bag is buried in time. In addition, to prevent rat rodents, to avoid indirect contamination of mice, to deal with contaminated waste bacteria bags, do not throw litter everywhere, so as not to cause repeated infections. (11) Pests harmful to shiitake mushrooms in bag cultivation are mainly crickets and nematodes. During the incubation period in the tube, the damage was mainly caused by cockroaches. In the later period, it was mainly nematode. Pests in cultivation room or cultivation field can be sprayed with high-efficiency and low-toxicity pesticides, 1:1 200-1500 times of special killing, 1:50 times of insecticide emulsion and 1:500 times of marathon emulsion can effectively control nematodes. .