Symptoms are also known as wolfberry, rye, and black wolfberry. The disease is mainly present in the panicle. Generally, the diseased plant is shorter and has more tillers. The disease ear is slightly shorter and straight, and the color is darker. At the beginning, it is gray-green and later it is gray-yellow. The glume of the wheat shell was exposed and some of the diseased grains were exposed. The diseased grains are shorter and thicker than the healthy ones. They are dark green at the beginning and grayish black at the beginning. The outer layer is covered with a gray envelope, and the inside is filled with black powder (thick worms), and the gas containing trimethylamine fish smell is broken up. Called smut.
There are two etiological pathogens, one is Tilletia caries (DC.) Tul., and the other is Tilletia foetida (Waller). Liro is known as T. esculenta, and Tilletia contraversa Khn is reported as wheat. Dwarf smut can also cause smut. All belong to Basidiomycotina fungi. The wheat spores of T. hirsutum spores are produced in the ovary and are covered with peels. They are the same size as the seeds, and the inside is full of black and purple powdery spores with a savory taste. The spores are spherical to nearly spherical, light grayish brown to dark reddish-brown, 14-20 Î¼m in size, with a reticular pattern, mesh width 2-4Î¼m. The wheat spores of T. hirsutum spores are the same as above. Spores are spherical or ellipsoidal, some are oblong to polygonal, light gray to dark brown, size 15-25Î¼m, surface is smooth, but also smelly. The spores of T. horrida were dark brown in color. The dispersed spores were nearly spherical, pale yellow to light brown, 14-18 Î¼m in size, with a reticulation, a ridge height of 2-3 Î¼m, and a mesh diameter of 3-4.5 Î¼m. Some can reach 9.5-10Î¼m, and the outer bread is made of transparent gelatin sheath 1.5-5.5Î¼m thick. Mainly caused wheat dwarf smut.
Pathogens and pathogenic conditions The pathogens were attached to the seed surface with chlamydospore or mixed with manure and soil for winter or summer. When the seeds germinate, the chlamydospore germinates immediately. The chlamydospore first produces the first hyphae, and the top of the body produces 6-8 linear brachyspores. The different sexes, the spores of the sexes are combined on the hyphae in an â€œHâ€ shape, and then The germination was a fine bi-nuclear infestation line. Invade the wheat seedlings from the coleoptile and reach the growing point, and then develop with the mycelium form with wheat, to the booting stage, invade the ovary, destroy the flower organ, and form bacillary dysentery pathogenic bacteria chlamydospore in the wheat grains during heading. The chlamydospore of wheat smut pathogen can germinate in water, and the organic fertilizer leaching solution has stimulatory effect on its germination. Germination temperature 16-20 Â°C. The germs invade wheat seedlings at a temperature of 5-20Â°C, and the optimum temperature is 9-12Â°C. Wet soil (water content below 40%) is conducive to spore germination and infestation. The general sowing is relatively deep, which is not conducive to unearthing the wheat seedlings, increasing the chance of pathogen infestation, and aggravating diseases.
Control methods (1) Seed treatment Heavy-duty year-round areas with 2% Rikenxi seed dressing 10-15g, add a small amount of water into a paste liquid and 10kg wheat seed mix, dry after sowing. Seed weight can also be used 0.15% -0.2% of 20% triadimefon (triadon) or 0.1% -0.15% of 15% triadimenol (Betatan, oxytetrazinium), 0.2% of 40% thiram, 0.2% 40% seed dressing double, 0.2% 50% carbendazim, 0.2% 70% thiophanate-methyl (methyl thiophanate), 0.2% -0.3% 20% wilting and other dressing and boring , have a good control effect, (2) promote the application of fermented enzyme composting compost or the application of decomposed organic fertilizer. Add manure (bean cakes, peanut cakes, sesame cakes, etc.) or grass to the manure manure, keep it moist, put it on the ground after one month of accumulation, or isolate it from the seeds. (3) Agricultural control of spring wheat should not be premature, and winter wheat should not be sown too late. Sowing should not be too deep. The use of quick-acting fertilizer such as ammonium sulfate as a seed fertilizer during seeding can promote early seedling emergence and reduce the chance of infection. Winter Wheat advocates that in the autumn sowing, the long-term ammonium bicarbonate can be used once, which can meet the needs of the whole growing season and reduce the incidence.
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