In the spring of March, the warming weather is a good season for raising pigs. However, as the temperature gradually rises, various germs will multiply. After wintering of livestock and poultry, the body's resistance to disease has weakened. If the disinfection is not complete during the breeding process, improper management can easily cause pig disease and reduce the breeding efficiency. So, what problems should be paid attention to when raising pigs in the spring?
1 Repair the pig house and do a good job of disinfection
Keeping the pig house warm, dry and ventilated, doing a good job in pig house hygiene, and constantly disinfecting the pigsty and eliminating the living environment of the germs are an important part of doing a good job of raising pigs in the spring. Pigs prefer a warm and dry environment, especially the body's thermoregulatory function of piglets is not yet well developed, with less body surface deposition of fat and poor cold resistance. In the early spring, the weather in March is volatile and the temperature difference between day and night is relatively large. Therefore, it is particularly important to keep the pig house warm, dry, clean and air-flowing and create a small environment conducive to the growth and development of pigs. Especially in the northern regions, the sows must be implemented with warm real estate, which is the basis for guaranteeing the piglets' full livelihood and full strength. At the same time, before the advent of spring, pighouses should be completely disinfected to prevent the growth and reproduction of germs. The specific approach is to first thoroughly clean the pens, and then use 20% to 30% lime milk or 20% of the ash or 2% to 3% of the fire alkali solution to spray and brush the floor, walls and surrounding environment. After washing the equipment, use 3% to 5% of the water to disinfect it, and then rinse with water.
2 Strengthen prevention and focus on nutrition
In the spring, we must guard against the occurrence of various infectious diseases. Strictly follow the immunization procedures for immunizing pigs. Once an epidemic is found, it must be strictly blocked, disinfected, and the injections must be strengthened. The dead carcasses should be handled as required. If there is an outbreak in the surrounding area, besides the disinfection of the piggery, foreigners and vehicles should be strictly prohibited from entering the farm, and their vehicles and personnel must be completely disinfected after returning from the epidemic area. At the same time, the level of nutrition also has a major impact on the health of pigs. The high level of nutrient supply can meet the nutritional needs of pigs and ensure that pigs have a better body condition and can effectively improve their ability to resist disease. Therefore, in the production of pigs should be based on different growth stages, scientifically fed a full price diet with different nutritional standards, and timely adjustment of diet formula based on changes in pig weight, eating conditions. Spring green feed is lacking. It is necessary to add some juicy feed such as carrots and brewers' grains and cakes to the diet so as to increase the appetite of the pigs and at the same time add some vitamins.
3 Fine management, scientific feeding
The feeding and management of finishing pigs and breeding pigs can be carried out as usual, but the feeding and management of piglets must be done with caution. Because piglets lack innate immunity, body temperature regulation and digestive function are not perfect, and in the spring of climate change, there is a slight mistake in feeding and management, which can easily cause piglets to become ill or even die in large numbers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the feeding and management of nursing sows, maintain the cleanliness and hygiene of the breasts, and properly handle the three phases of food intake, supplementary feeding, and Wangshi food, so that the piglets can safely pass through the first birth, feeding, and weaning, and special care should be provided. Good weaned piglets. Prevention of piglet dysentery should be vaccinated at the end of the sow pregnancy period, while paying attention to the sow's post-natal environment and the improvement of the pig's constitution. For pigs in each stage of feeding, pay attention only to feed the full-priced compound feed, and add appropriate amount of compound additives. Provide clean drinking water, adequate light and appropriate exercise to promote the healthy growth of pigs, so that pigs can safely spend the spring season of disease-prone.
4 Do a good job of prevention and treatment of common swine diseases
There are many pig diseases that can easily occur in the spring. The most common are diarrheal diseases, mycoplasma pneumonia, flu and piglet edema.
4.1 Diarrhea in pigs Diarrhea is a common disease in spring, and the main symptom is diarrhea. The disease is caused by a variety of causes, and only the correct identification can be symptomatic treatment to improve efficacy.
1 infectious gastroenteritis. An acute intestinal infectious disease caused by a virus. The disease is characterized by watery diarrhoea, vomiting, and dehydration in infected pigs. Once a pig becomes ill, it can rapidly spread in the entire population. The principle of treatment of the disease is mainly to supplement body fluids, prevent dehydration and secondary infection, commonly used intravenous injection of anviquat or rehydration salts and internal use, while using antibiotics such as chloramphenicol or sulfaquinone for symptomatic treatment.
2 rotavirus disease. The disease is an acute intestinal infectious disease caused by porcine rotavirus. It occurs frequently in winter and spring and occurs only in piglets less than 2 months of age. The main pathological condition of the disease is anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea in piglets. Treatment can be stopped immediately, oral administration of glucose saline and compound glucose solution.
3 piglets jaundice. The disease, also known as early-onset E. coli disease, is a newly lethal piglet acute lethal infectious disease caused by pathogenic E. coli. The disease is characterized by row of yellow dilute feces. There is little vomiting and multiple piglets less than 7 days of age have higher morbidity and mortality. The course of the disease is acute. After the onset of the disease, it is generally too late to cure. If one piglet is found to be infected in the herd, the entire population should be treated with preventive measures immediately, and internal antibiotics such as gentamycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and sulfaquinone can be taken orally. , Lactobacillus and other microorganisms live microbial preparations.
4 Piglets are white. The disease, also known as delayed E. coli disease, mostly occurs in piglets aged 10 to 30 days and is endemic. The disease is characterized by a row of white mushy dilute feces, the onset of the season is not obvious, the mortality rate is not high, but the treatment is not easy to become stiff pigs. Treatment with sulfaquinone, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, norfloxacin, furazolidone, Baiji San and other drugs have good effect.
5 Red piglets. The disease, also known as Clostridium perfringens enteritis, is an intestinal infectious disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type c or type a, which mainly infects neonatal piglets within 3 days of age. Sick pigs occasionally vomit, row red sticky feces, generally less than treatment death. Prevention is the key measure to control the occurrence of the disease. On the one hand, it is necessary to strengthen feeding and management, maintain hygiene in the pens, and reduce the chance of infection; on the other hand, penicillin or streptomycin can be taken within the first 3 days of piglet weight per kilogram of body weight. Waniu, 2 servings a day, has a good preventive effect.
6 piglets paratyphoid. The disease is an infectious disease of piglets caused by salmonella. It mainly affects 2 to 4 days old piglets and has no obvious seasonality. In early acute constipation, the affected pigs developed scurvy, bloody stools, abdomen, ears, extremities, tip and tip of the body, etc. The skin of the distal body was red, and later became blue-purple, and the body temperature increased. Chronic constipation alternates with diarrhea, with feces gray, yellowish or dark green, and eczema on the skin. Antibiotics such as penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline are not effective against the disease, and have certain therapeutic effects with gentamicin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol.
7 swine dysentery. The disease is a gut infectious disease caused by swine fever virus. It is mostly found on shelf pigs. Piglets and adult pigs rarely develop the disease. The disease spreads slowly, has a long epidemic period, has a high morbidity, and has a low mortality rate. It can endanger the herd in the long term. The sick pigs were excreted with a large amount of mucus and bloody feces, and they were jelly-like. The disease treatment with a good effect, but easy to relapse after drug withdrawal, more difficult to cure. Can choose to use bacillus net, berberine, furazolidone, bacitracin, olaquindox, tetracycline and other drugs, if you find that poor efficacy should be replaced as soon as possible drugs.
4.2 Porcine Mycoplasma Pneumonia
The winter and spring seasons are the seasons of mycoplasma pneumonia. The disease is a contact respiratory infection of pigs. The incubation period is generally about 11 to 16 days, and the longest is up to 1 month or more. The disease can be divided into two kinds of acute and chronic.
The acute type has multiple piglets, pregnant sows, and nursing sows. The sick pig's head was drooping, lack of energy, breathing 60 to 100 times per minute, gasping and asthmatic sounds, low cough and low, purple mucous membrane, little change in body temperature, high mortality, and disease duration of 7 to 10 days. Chronic types are transformed from acute types. In the early stage of disease, the sick pigs usually have a short and dry cough, and they become chronic convulsive cough for a long time, especially in the morning and evening, exercise, and after meals or sudden changes in temperature. The course of disease can be dragged to two to three months or even six months. Although the mortality rate is not high, it may cause stiffness due to its impact on growth and development. Control can be intramuscular injection asthma flat, daily 2 ~ 40,000 iu / kg body weight, continuous injection of 5 days for a course of treatment; oxytetracycline hydrochloride 1 ~ 1.5g intramuscular injection, 7 days for a course of treatment; hydrogen Fuma Intramuscular injection of salt, once a day, dose of 11mg/kg body weight, continuous injection for 5 days; 1g of the original powder was dissolved in 4.5kg drinking water, let the pig free Beverage, and even served 7 days.
4.3 Swine flu
Swine flu most often occurs in winter and spring and is endemic. The incidence of the disease is high, the incubation period is 2 to 7 days, and the disease duration is about 1 week. Sudden fever, sluggishness, loss of appetite, or elimination of disease at the onset of the disease, often lying together, unwillingness to move, difficulty breathing, coughing intensely, mucus out of the eyes and nose. If the treatment is not timely in the onset, it is easy to concurrently develop bronchitis, pneumonia, and pleurisy, which increases the mortality of pigs.
Prevention of the disease should be paved and diligently change the hay, and regularly disinfect the pig house with 5% caustic soda. Pay attention to the changes in the weather and take measures to keep warm in case of cooling. Prevent susceptible pigs from coming into contact with infected animals. Pigs were inoculated twice consecutively with inactivated swine influenza vaccine and the immunization period was up to 8 months. There is no special medical treatment for this disease. Only symptomatic treatment can be used to reduce the disease while taking antibiotics or sulfa drugs to avoid secondary infection. The compound morpholine tablets or compound Adamantine tablets and Banlangen granules can be tried and controlled. The dosage is determined according to the weight of the pig and the content of the medicine. For severely ill pigs, penicillin and streptomycin may be used together with intramuscular injection of Viralin twice daily for 5 consecutive days. Adding 2% of antibiotics and antibiotics to the feed can effectively control the condition.
4.4 Edema of piglets
Piglet edema disease is an enterotoxaemia in weaned piglets caused by pathogenic E. coli. The disease can occur throughout the year, especially in the winter and spring, and the epidemic is more extensive, with a mortality rate of more than 80%.
The disease mainly occurs in weaned piglets, especially in piglets that grow 5 to 15 days after weaning and have a fast growth and good lyrical condition. The disease is mainly caused by sudden changes in the feed after weaning, causing changes in the intestinal microbiota and causing the disease. In addition, changes in the living environment and climatic conditions, as well as simple lack of vitamins and mineral elements in feed, are all pathogenic factors.
The sudden onset of the disease, the sudden outbreak of the disease in the early stages of the common disease, pigs died suddenly. The slower onset of the disease is manifested as depression, loss of food, edema of the eyelids, head, neck, and anus, and sometimes systemic edema, and acupressure marks. The pigs at the onset of the disease had neurological symptoms: excitement, circling, rapid heartbeat, tremor, ataxia, hoarseness, and hind limb paralysis. Acute cases die for 4 to 5 hours, and most of them die within 1 to 2 days. For older pigs, the duration of disease can be extended to 5 to 7 days.
Supplementing with additives containing selenium and antibiotics, feeding appropriate amounts of garlic to weaned piglets, appropriately reducing feed intake at weaning, and feeding in sufficient quantities one week later, have a good effect in preventing the disease. If selenium deficiency is induced by selenium deficiency, 0.1% sodium selenite can be used intramuscularly at 1 ml per kilogram of body weight once a day for 3 days. Anvilose injection can be used for treatment. Each pig is injected with 40-60m B in the abdominal cavity to stop feeding the concentrate at the same time of treatment, plus green feed and exercise. Dexamethasone sodium phosphate, sulfadiazine and vitamin c injection can also be used for large dose injection. Treatment should also be combined with diuretic, laxative, detoxification, intramuscular injection with furosemide; gavage salts such as magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate, artificial salt and rhubarb, sodium bicarbonate, 1 or 2 times a day, continuous 5 day.
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