Production and Application of Multifunctional Soybean Dietary Fiber

1. Physiological function of multifunctional soybean dietary fiber Dietary fiber mainly refers to the general term of macromolecular carbohydrates that cannot be digested by human digestive enzymes, and mainly includes cellulose, pectin, xylan, and mannose. Although dietary fiber can not provide any nutrients for the human body, it has important physiological functions for the human body. Dietary fiber has significant effects in lowering blood pressure and plasma cholesterol, regulating gastrointestinal function, blood glucose, and insulin levels. The main component of Muhifunctional Soy-Bean Fiber (MSF) is dietary fiber and protein with a content of 67.98% (dry basis) and 19.75%, respectively, and therefore is a good protein-fiber additive. Studies have shown that adding a small amount of MSF has a good strengthening effect on medium-strength or low-gluten flour; within a certain range of added amounts, it not only improves the dietary fiber and protein content of the product, but also improves the quality of bread, noodles, and biscuits. Very favorable. MSF may be the best function of all dietary fibers, far less than other synthetic fibers (eg, progesterone, polydextrose). Multi-functional soybean dietary fiber is a high-quality dietary fiber obtained from fresh soybean dregs as a raw material and subjected to special heat treatment. It has good effects in regulating blood sugar, lowering blood lipids, and promoting defecation.
2. Production Process of Multifunctional Soybean Dietary Fibers Wet bean dregs → Adjusted acidity (pH of 1mol/L hydrogen chloride is adjusted to 3 to 5) → Soaked with hot water (80°C to 100°C, 2h) → Neutralization (1mol/L hydrogen Sodium oxide to adjust the pH to neutral) → dehydration drying (65 °C ~ 70 °C drying or air drying to a moisture content of 8%) → crushing → sifting (80 mesh) → bean dregs powder → extrusion (feed moisture 16.8 %, 150°C screw speed 150 r/min) → cooling → pulverization → functional activation and ultrafine pulverization → MSF.
3. Operation points for preparing multifunctional soybean dietary fiber (1) Hydrothermal treatment deodorization process This process includes acidification, heat treatment, and neutralization of soybean residue. 1 Adjust the acid. The bean dregs were soaked in water and the pH was adjusted to 3 to 5 with a 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid solution. Because the heat treatment under acidic conditions is beneficial to remove the odor of the bean dregs, and the addition of acid can also leach part of the pigment material to improve the color of the product. 2 heat treatment. The soaked soybean dregs are heated to a temperature of 80° C. to 100° C. and subjected to a wet heat treatment for about 2 hours to inactivate the lipoxygenase, reduce the taste of the beans, and passivate the anti-nutritional factors. 3 and in. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to neutral with a 1 mol/L NaOH solution.
(2) Extrusion cooking Extrusion cooking is an important process for producing high-quality multi-functional soybean fiber powder. Extrusion cooking has the following effects: 1 It can increase the content of soluble dietary fiber. When soybean meal is pressed and cooked, under some strong forces, some hemicelluloses (such as arabinoxylans) and insoluble pectic substances will melt or break the connecting bonds and turn into water-soluble polymers. Increasing the soluble fiber content to 10% to 16% not only meets the requirement of balancing dietary fiber, but more importantly, water-insoluble dietary fiber promotes intestinal peristalsis, while water-soluble dietary fiber exerts more physiological metabolism on the human body. effect. Therefore, the increase in the content of water-soluble dietary fiber is beneficial to increase the functional properties of the product. 2 can improve the physical properties of soybean fiber. The extrusion cooking process changes the degree of polymerization, the relative molecular mass, the monosaccharide composition, and its relative content in the total amount of fibers of various polymer components in soybean fibers. The increase in the content of water-soluble dietary fiber can improve some of the physical properties of soybean fiber powder (such as water holding capacity, ion exchange capacity and gel properties). Because the water-soluble polymer components are all curdlan, they can form a certain three-dimensional network structure of viscoelasticity and play a role similar to the structure of gluten network. Therefore, they improve the rheological properties of gluten and become an improver of flour quality. Increased its use value in food. 3 It can reduce the negative effect of phytic acid on the absorption of trace mineral elements. Extrusion can reduce the chelation of phytic acid and metal ions, improve the impact of bean dregs on the absorption of trace elements in the body, and improve the exchange capacity of dietary fiber and cations, and improve the functionality of the product. 4 can improve product quality. In the process of extrusion cooking, through the action of heat, the anti-nutritional factors in the bean dregs can be further eliminated, the lipase can be killed, the protein in the bean dregs can be moderately degenerated, the flavor and storage performance of the product can be improved, and the digestion and absorption of the body can be facilitated.
(3) Ultrafine pulverization and functional activation activation treatment is a key step in the preparation of high-activity multi-functional dietary fibers, including ultrafine pulverization to achieve optimization and reorganization of the internal components of the fiber; encapsulation of certain groups of fibers can be avoided These groups, combined with mineral elements, affect the body's mineral metabolism balance. Only activated dietary fiber is the true physiologically active substance that can be used in functional foods. Dietary fiber without activation can only be a low-energy filler. 1 ultrafine grinding. The smaller the particle size of the final product is, the larger the specific surface area is, and the water holding capacity and swelling force of the dietary fiber are correspondingly increased, and at the same time, the rough mouthfeel characteristics can also be reduced. Therefore, when the extruded soybean dregs powder is dried to 6% to 8% water content, ultrafine pulverization should be performed to increase the specific surface area of ​​the fibers. 2 function activation. Because the dietary fiber has hydroxyl active groups on the surface, it will bind with certain mineral elements, which may affect the body's mineral metabolism, such as the use of appropriate wall materials for encapsulation, can solve this problem, that is to complete the function of activation . An aqueous solution prepared from a hydrophilic colloid (such as carrageenan) and glycerin can be used as a wall material, and the fiber microcapsule product can be made by a spray drying method. After the entrance, a silky and comfortable feeling can be given to the user, and the edible quality can be improved. In addition, it is also possible to strengthen the mineral elements of the multifunctional soybean fibers.
4. Soybean dietary fiber in food applications Soybean dietary fiber is widely used in foods. As a food additive, it can be used in meat products, bread, biscuits, cakes, noodles, sauces, and frozen foods. In addition to fillings, beverages and ice creams and health products, the addition of soy fiber not only helps to improve the structure of the product and enhance the unique flavor of the product, but also gives the product a good nutritional function. The following describes the production process of an elderly biscuit rich in dietary fiber.
(1) 46.6% of powdered ingredients for biscuits, 11.7% of multifunctional soybean fiber, 7.3% of shortening, 3.5% of high fructose syrup, 7.3% of sucrose, 2% of brown sugar, 3.2% of honey, 0.9% of sodium bicarbonate, 0.8% of ammonium bicarbonate %, salt 0.9%, water 11.6%.
(2) Method First, pour the shortening and honey into a horizontal mixer, stir well, then add sucrose, brown sugar, high fructose syrup, salt, and water, and add pre-dissolved ammonium bicarbonate solution and sodium bicarbonate solution. Add flour and soy fiber and stir for 10 minutes until the dough matures. The kneaded dough has a temperature of 49-52° C. After being molded in a mold, it can be baked in a belt oven for 6 minutes.
Through experiments, if the added amount of multi-functional soybean fiber is less than 12%, the substitution of biscuit-specific powder has no effect on the quality of biscuits, and increasing the amount of added soybean fiber must be combined with other food additives.
With the improvement of people's living standards and health awareness, the demand for health functional foods is getting stronger. Multi-functional soybean dietary fiber is widely used by researchers and consumers because it is inexpensive and has many physiological functions and quality improvement. The potential for the development of soybean dietary fiber foods has great potential.
Author: Lanzhou City, Gansu Province Food Industry Research Institute

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