1 Preparation before fattening
1.1 The barn construction of the cowshed should be ideal in places with high dryness, solid soil, good drainage, access to water through the network, relatively convenient transportation, and easy prevention of disease and quiet surroundings. According to the amount of breeding, the size of the built cow house is determined. Usually, the area of â€‹â€‹the l cow is 4 to 5 square meters. . The sheds are to face southwards, and to maintain proper humidity (60% to 80%) and temperature (7 to 25Â°C), good ventilation, and protection against rain and cold, the shed should have a disinfection tank. The construction of housing and the allocation of facilities must be based on the existing natural conditions and economic capabilities of the farmer households. They should use their own funds as much as possible and draw on the ground as much as possible, use the old materials to cover or reconstruct the existing buildings due to simple construction, as far as possible. Reducing the initial capital investment should be simply not "luxury", as long as it has the basic functions of sheltering from the rain, warm winter and cool summer, and is conducive to ventilation, lighting, heat preservation, transportation and disinfection.
1.2 Species selection and purchase of shelf cattle Currently, some farmers in rural areas in our province do not pay much attention to the selection of individual varieties of fattening cattle, and blindly purchase them indiscriminately. As a result, they use a lot of grass and spend a lot of energy. The time for feeding is also very long, but the cattle gain weight is very slow, the feed rate is very low, the fattening benefit is not high or even outweigh the gain, so we must pay special attention to the selection of fattening cattle breeds. Specifically, the breeder has the best fattening effect on purebred beef cattle, such as Limousin, Angus, Charolais and Simmental in foreign countries, Jilin Yanbian Yellow Cattle in China, and Shaanxi Qinchuan Yellow Cattle in China. Followed by hybrid cattle, that is, the use of foreign purebred beef cattle breeds, such as Limousin, Angus, Charolais, Simmental, etc. as the parent and the local yellow cattle hybrids produced through hybridization, these hybrid offspring have Strong resistance to disease, resistance to roughage, fast weight gain, good meat quality, and high feed remuneration, good local adaptability, and is currently gaining popularity in our province. It is our most worthwhile choice; Individuals in cattle and local cattle breeds are indeed better and may consider purchasing fattening, but the effect may not be as significant as that of the hybrid improved variety. The bull fattening effect is best in gender, followed by calf and once again cow. The overall requirements for the purchase of shelf cattle are: good growth and development, bright eyes, strong limbs, light hair, healthy, disease-free, normal body shape, age is suitable for 15-20 months of age.
1.3 Preparation of forage fodder preparation According to the size of fattening, sufficient fodder should be provided and a certain amount of high-yield and high-quality fodder should be planted artificially. In our province's rural areas, we can use suitable cultivated land for intercropping or crop rotation, and we can also make full use of free fields and returning farmland to forests and grasslands to plant special winter grazing 70, annual or perennial ryegrass, imperial bamboo grass, alfalfa alfalfa Such as excellent pasture, to solve the problem of forage. It is also necessary to prepare enough silages and ammoniated materials for a long period of time, and where possible, dregs and root and tuber feeds can also be prepared.
2 Management of new arrivals
2.1 adapt to observe the new purchaser's shelf cattle to be put in a dry and quiet place to rest and observe, to slowly and adequately feed water, feeding hay and grass, to make the new arrival as soon as possible to adapt to the new environment, and observe the action of cattle , eating, rumination, defecation and other abnormalities.
2.2 Pre-fatation work (1) Grouping: Before the healthy cows enter the pens, rational classification should be conducted according to the fattening cattle breeds, body weight size, sex and physical strength to facilitate feeding and management. (2) Deworming: After the cattle are adapted to the new environment, they are required to drive off the parasites in vivo and in vitro. Commonly used drugs include avermectin or ivermectin, and can also be fed with 0.5 kg per ton of feed. . (3) Jianwei: After the deworming is over, each cow will be fed with â€œrhubarb to get fire and Jianwei Sanâ€ (300-400g) or fasting with 1% sodium bicarbonate and stomach.
3 Feeding management during the fattening period
3.1 During the transition period, when the shelf-harvesting cattle are transferred into the finishing period, they cannot feed immediately with the feed standard for the finishing period. A transitional adaptation period is required to induce the cattle to eat more food and gradually increase the intake and quantity of feed. The amount of material input.
3.2 The diet should be matched with the feed properly and mixed thoroughly. The concentrate is fed by 1% to 1.5% of the fattening cow's body weight. The formula for the concentrate is: corn 50%, soybean meal 30%, bran 16%, and other 4%. Crude material is determined according to local production conditions. High-quality, high-quality, high protein content, such as high-quality artificial pastures and other forage materials are properly fed together with concentrates, which can replace part of concentrates and reduce the amount of concentrates and greatly reduce the amount of concentrates. Fattening and feeding costs, but it should be noted that straw, hay, and green forage must be cut short and cut to feed the cattle, with a length of 1.5cm is appropriate. Where conditions permit, supplementation with distiller's grains, bean dregs, etc. is appropriate, and the effect of fattening is better.
3.3 Routine management should constantly observe the herd, maintain environmental sanitation, pay attention to heatstroke protection, cold protection, rain protection, sun protection, and moisture proof. We must do â€œsix settingsâ€ and â€œfour visitsâ€. Liu Ding: First, cattle positioning fixed-slotted feeding; Second, regular feeding, daily, mid-afternoon, feeding 1 time, first after the coarse, first feed after drinking water; third is quantitative feeding concentrate, can not Increases and decreases; Fourth is to set people feeding; Fifth, regular brushing cattle body, brushing once in the afternoon, to keep the body clean, promote skin metabolism and increase appetite; Sixth, regular disinfection inside and outside the housing. Four look: First, look at the descriptive status of cattle, agile, flexible eyes, tail swing from time to time, light fur is normal, on the other hand, the eyes are arrogant, rough fur, arch back, dizzy, trembling, tail is not shaking is sick Performance; Second, the appetite of cattle, appetite is strong and the speed of eating the grass is also faster, began to ruminate after eating is normal, if the fresh grass in the case of no mildew, cattle just sniff the forage, do not want to eat Or eat less, that is, the performance of the disease; Third, look at the cow's feces, the health of the cow pull the feces into a pancake-like, round, high-edged, central concave, and emit fresh cow dung, urine is pale Yellow and transparent, if it is found that stool is granular or diarrhea diarrhea, and even a foul odor, and blood and pus, urine yellow or red color is a diseased performance; four to see the weather changes, should be strengthened in bad weather The fattening of the fattening herds prevents the occurrence of accidents.
3.4 Prevention and control of the epidemic Preventing outsiders from entering and leaving the cowshed at random, entering the enclosure to go through the disinfecting tank, cleaning the cowhouse excrement in time, keeping the enclosure clean and dry, cleaning the trough after the feeding trough and feeding equipment Clean; weekly disinfection of the cowshed with a disinfectant solution once; to do a good job of cattle immunization, anthrax, No. 5 disease and other diseases of the immune vaccination; always pay attention to observe the health status of cattle, there must be timely isolation of diseased cattle and treatment.
4 Strictly controlling the fattening of fattening cattle is an important part of reducing feeding costs and improving economic efficiency. The shelf cows have been fattened after 3 to 4 months of controlled exercise and intensity-intensive feeding and finishing, and have met the sales requirements. At this time, when the market price is good, they must be sold in time. Otherwise, the cattle's weight gain rate will slow down. , Lower feed conversion rate, increased feeding costs, affecting fattening effects and benefits.
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