The characteristics of fish farming in ponds in China is to conduct multi-species polyculture in the same water body, that is, to use a certain amount of bait and fully utilize the natural foods in the water body. At the same time, it is linked with the aquatic ecosystem and plays a complementary and mutually beneficial role. The way of fish farming. In line with the economic and reasonable principles. Therefore, it has been able to continue. Now it has a history of more than 2,000 years.
China's pond fish farming is based on water and fish farming is the core to organize ecological economic systems. It includes: "comprehensive utilization of water bodies (three-dimensional use of water bodies), rational configuration of biological structures, and optimization of economic components." Thus, solar energy utilization, surface water productivity, material energy conversion rate, and waste recycling rate all achieve optimal benefits. .
The rational allocation and stocking of fish species is a process of realizing the rational configuration of the biological structure of ponds, which is also an important part of improving the economic benefits of pond fish farming. The key to improving the economic benefits of fish farming is: variety, collocation and stocking.
The low breeding grades, the concentrated production, the slow sales of fish products, and the rising prices of raw materials (fish species, feed, fish medicine, etc.) have led to a decline in the economic benefits of fish farming. Therefore, the preferred cultured species can not be ignored. In addition, it is also necessary to improve the quality of fish products, implement anti-season production, and optimize traditional aquaculture structures.
In 2007, Prof. Shi Liang of Dalian Fisheries College proposed the issue of updating breeds. In the "Evaluation of Newly Cultured Fish in China", the habits, feeding habits, breeding characteristics and breeding prospects of 29 species of fish were demonstrated. With regard to the issue of the replacement of fish, it should be pointed out that it is easy to keep the fish and the price is reasonable. Consumers welcome the variety as a breeding object. The author believes that the carp is the preferred breeding object. Mackerel grows quickly and is easy to adapt to the pond culture environment. It can use artificial compound feed. Seeds are easier to solve. Moreover, as far as the current situation is concerned, the price and market prospects of adult fish can still be seen. Can be used as the main support object. The problem that needs to be solved is that squid has a strong contention and the growth difference is obvious. There is a high level of technical requirements for grading operations in aquaculture. The cultured species of squid were Liuxuyu and Nanfangkoukou. According to the analysis of the farming situation, the northern Liushao had better production performance than the southern large pupa. The second best breed is the catfish tail. The meat quality is good, but it is slower and it is not resistant to hypoxia. Can not compete with Chinese crickets. Followed by squid, head lice, and sphenopalatopa. It is also suggested that flower white peony remains dominant in Dashui, and it is also a species that cannot be ignored in ponds.
Another report: Long kiss? - is also a good breeding new species. Long-swimming? Is a high-grade fish, its artificial reproduction, feed formulation, feeding methods and other aspects of research have a greater breakthrough. It is expected to become a new cultured species. However, this type of fish floats at a dissolved oxygen of 2.5 kg/L, and is suitable for aquaculture in micro-injection ponds and cages for large reservoirs. It is difficult to farm in still water ponds.
There is also a new breed of imported farmed fish, burdock (largemouth bass, giantmouth bass, giantmouth rouge). This fish is native to the Mississippi River Valley of North America and is a large-scale economic fish with large individual growth. Fast, strong resistance, rapid reproduction and other advantages. In the United States, the southern states have a certain scale of cultivation. This fish was introduced into China from the United States by the Department of Aquatic Research of Hubei Province in 1993. After several years of trials in central China, the fish showed rapid growth and was easy to fish. Generally, the yield per mu was more than 500 kg. Under the pool, the largest individual can reach more than 600 grams, which is a good breeding new species. The new fish breeding farm in Ninghe County of our city has been introduced, but the seedling production has not yet formed scale.
Paddlefish is a large-scale economic fish. The worldâ€™s largest fish has a body weight of 65 kg. Captured in the Tana River section of the Missouri River. The species of paddlefish is different from other fish, and the snout is particularly long, about one-third of its length. It inhabits the water layer and can last up to 30 years. Paddlefish has the following advantages as a farmed fish.
(1). Paddlefish is a wide-temperature fish, it is not afraid of low temperatures, even if the water surface is frozen, as long as there is enough dissolved oxygen in the water, it can also live in ice water. Paddlefish can also withstand high temperatures and can survive in water at 32Â°C. In the summer of Hubei, when the temperature is as high as 39-40Â°C, the water temperature on the surface of the pond often exceeds 32Â°C. The paddlefish cultured in the pond can still live normally.
(2). Fast growing
Paddlefish can be said to be one of the fastest growing fish in freshwater fish. The fish can weigh more than 0.5 kilograms. The 2nd age fish can weigh more than 1.5 kilograms. The 3rd age fish can exceed 2.5 kilograms.
(3). Wide source of bait
The key food for paddlefish is zooplankton in water. It can also feed silkworms and artificial feed.
(4). Do not destroy the water environment
The paddlefish cultured in large waters does not need to be fertilized, and does not have to feed artificial diets. The medium-sized water surface is also the same, and paddlefish can't ingest aquatic plants. Therefore, the paddlefish breeding will not damage the natural environment of the water body.
(5). Low production costs
Expenses for feed costs generally account for more than 20% of total production costs. The expensive feed for breeding expensive fish accounts for 30-40% of the total production cost. Large and medium-sized water surface spatulae rely on the amount of natural food in the water to determine the amount of stocking, so there is no need to pay for the bait. Paddlefish breeding in ponds is also entirely dependent on zooplankton in the water and does not require expenditure on food costs, resulting in low production costs.
(6). Easy to fish
Paddlefish are mild in temperament, not good at jumping, and their habits are similar to those of flower buds. Paddlefish cultivated in ponds are all seized by the fence. The first net can capture more than 90% of the fish. Large and medium-sized water surfaces can be harvested in various ways. The fishing method can be used to catch, catch, puncture, and fish. Pick up most spoonfish.
(7). High economic value
The price of paddlefish is very expensive in foreign countries. At present, only a few paddlefish are sold in China, and the price per kilogram is about 60 yuan. Paddlefish caviar is also expensive in the international market. Paddlefish are sold as ornamental fish. The price in our country is 5 centimeters in length, 10 yuan in each tail, 15 centimeters in length and 25-30 yuan in each tail, 50 centimeters in length and 50 to 60 yuan in each tail.
Based on the above-mentioned advantages of paddlefish, it is of great significance to develop paddlefish to adjust the structure of freshwater fish breeds in China, promote the use of large and medium-sized surface fish, and increase the economic benefits of freshwater fish farming.
Finally, please note that before the development of new varieties of breeding, we must first do market research, collect breeding technology data, it is best to find technical support, to develop a more detailed breeding plan. After passing the small test, with some experience, we will expand the scale.
The adoption of multi-species polyculture is one of the important characteristics of pond fish farming in China, and it is also one of the important measures to increase the fish production and economic benefits of the pond.
Polyculture can rationally use bait resources and water resources, can play a mutually beneficial role among farmed fish, can increase production and reduce costs to obtain more considerable economic benefits. This is an important step for â€œcomprehensive utilization of water bodies, rational allocation of biological structures, optimization of compositional economic components, and realization of a virtuous cycle.â€
In determining the variety and proportion of polyculture, fish should be rationally configured according to the biological characteristics of fish, and scientifically design the proportion of various stocking fish.
Pond natural food organisms provide fish production such as earthworms and other filter-feeding (water fish) fish, and the high limit is about 400 kg. The significant increase in fish production should be based on increasing the stocking ratio of fish (eat fish), improving feed quality, and strengthening oxygenation measures.
1. Carp: carp storage 300kg/mu or more, the most suitable ratio is 4~5:1;
The stock of carp is more than 200kg/mu, and the optimum proportion of carp is 3:1;
The stock of carp is 100~150kg/mu, and the optimum ratio of carp is 2:1.
2. Mandarin fish, tilapia, and white gizzards: Their polyculture ratio depends on their ability to filter and feed, and their ability to filter foods is stronger than that of tilapia and white gizzards. However, the eel's ability to swallow is less than that of the latter. Therefore, the stocking ratio of tilapia and silver carp should be lower than that of alfalfa, otherwise it will inhibit the growth of carp. The stocking ratio of quail and tilapia and white plover is 2 to 3:1.
3. Grass carp and squid: These two fishes have different diets and habitats. The natural food used in the pond is also different, but the ability of the grass carp to eat more is higher than that of the carp when feeding artificial bait. Therefore, the carp can be kept less in the main grass carp pond in order to make full use of benthic organisms and artificial baits. The main eel ponds are usually not with grass carp. In ponds with aquatic plants, depending on how many acres of aquatic plants are placed, 20 to 50 grass carp species with a weight of about 100 grams can be placed to control aquatic grasses. The main grass carp ponds, depending on the amount of grass adult fish, can stock 50 to 100 tail carp species.
4. Herring and squid: They both inhabit the bottom and have some overlap in their diet. In the pond where the main herring is reared, only a small amount of carp species can be placed, with no more than 50 per mu. The pond that raises the eel generally does not place herring.
5. Squid and mackerel: There is also overlap in the feeding habits of the two fish. They compete for large zooplankton in the same pond. Therefore, less carp is placed in the main carp pond to effectively use small zooplankton and control rotifers. Biomass to avoid causing hypoxia. However, the amount of carp stocks can only be controlled by one-third of the carp, otherwise it will inhibit the growth of carp.
three. Calculation of stocking capacity
In general, the stocking density in a certain range is positively correlated with the fish yield; it is negatively correlated with the pond size. When the stocking density exceeds this range, both the fish production and the out-of-water specification decrease.
1. Squid: The stocking density of common carp summer flowers is generally 500 to 600 (mixed yield per mu up to 400 to 500 kg). The stocking density of anchovy springs is about 500 mu per mu (up to 700-800 kg per mu). When the pond conditions are good, the feed quality is high, and the oxygen enrichment equipment is perfect, the stocking capacity of mu can reach 1000 to 1500 tails (up to 1300 to 2000 kg of mixed-breeding yield).
2. Grass carp: The stocking density of grass carp depends on the planned output, generally adopting large-, medium-, and small-scale polyculture (large-scale grass fish species 500-700 g/tail, medium specifications 150-250 g/tail, small-size 20-50 g/ mu). For example, a total of 900-1,000 kilograms of mixed crops will be stocked, and 80 to 100 tailstocks of large-scale species of grasses will be stocked; 120 in the medium specification and 200 in the smaller size.
3. The stocking density of eel is about 240 to 350. The proportion of squid depends on the size of the squid. Generally, squid has a larger size and can be put in more suitable. The percentage is controlled from 10% to 15%. However, it should not exceed 20%.
The main carp ponds are mainly fertilized, and carp only feed on natural foods, and their mu yield can reach 113-417 kilograms. More than 300 kilograms or more, most use round catch.
There are many specific calculation methods, and the planned production method is generally used. The following example shows how to calculate the stocking rate using a 1000-kilogram pond per mu.
The first step: Determine the fish load in the pond based on the conditions of the pond. Properly allocate the mu yield of various fish and determine the specifications of the out of the pool.
Raising 1,000 kg per mu for stocking mode calculation table
Design 1000 kg per mu; where:
Flower white peony: Use the filter-feeding characteristics of the flower white peony to purify the water quality and make full use of the natural bait resources of the water body without using organic fertilizer. Increase production and economic efficiency. In order to improve the output specification of the white peony, the design should not be too high. White buckwheat mu production design is 250 kg; buckwheat mu production 75 kg specifications white buckwheat 1 kg/tail; flower pod specifications 2 kg/tail;
Zhai Zeyi: The main consideration is to make full use of residual baits to increase production. The per mu design is 20 kg. Out of specifications 0.4 kg.
Mission head lice: It is also considered to make full use of the residual baits. To increase the output of the pond specifications, it is not appropriate to plan too much. The per mu design is 10 kg. Out of specifications 0.35 kg.
Big buzz: To clear the fish in the pool and reduce the floating head. Conventionally, a small amount of carnivorous fish can be stocked. However, it is advisable to pay attention to the stocking specifications so as not to endanger the stocking of fingerlings. The per mu design is 5 kg and the discharge specification is 1.5 kg.
The main squid is raised: it is based on the production of the deficit. The calculated yield per mu is 640 kg and the discharge specification is 1.75 kg.
Step 2: Design survival rates of various fish species
Here, we mainly consider the loss of mantissa caused by stocking errors and fish diseases. This can be determined based on years of experience. But it cannot be estimated too low.
Step 3: Determine stocking specifications based on the availability of fish species and price factors. It is then calculated by the computer itself.
Step 4: Refer to past experience and make repeated changes. Make it more reasonable.
About the stocking specifications, it can be calculated based on the weight gain multiple. However, the weight gain is not easy to design. If the design is too small, it will increase the amount of injection to increase the cost of restocking.
Finally calculate the input cost of mu and the output value of mu.
Natural growing goji berries, without any additives during the production, none GMO, none Gluten, manual picking.Manual picking retains the original nutrition of goji berries,so the nutritive value is high, and more and more people like it.
Goji Berry germination in Spring and flowering in April and September every year, picking in June to October. We use modern production equipment during drying, selecting and impurity removing, and according to the standardized production process combines enterprise quality inspection to ensure product quality.
Conventional Goji Berries,Conventional Goji,Sun Dried Goji Berry,Natural Dried Goji Berry
NINGXIA IVY BIOTECHNOLOGY CO.,LTD , http://www.berries-goji.com