Sprouts and their production management techniques
Sprouts are sprouts, buds, shoots, shoots, or shoots that can be eaten directly under dark, low light (or no light) conditions using plant seeds or other nutrient storage organs. Sprouts are produced without farmland, and do not require fertilization, three-dimensional planting, and live-stocking. They can rely on plant, greenhouses, and greenhouses for intensive production of vegetables. Short production cycle, high efficiency, low investment, quick effect, large profit, but also no pollution, nutrition, safety, high-quality high-grade vegetables. Sprout vegetables can be divided into seed (species) sprouts and body sprouts according to the nutrient sources they use. Seed (species) sprouts mainly refers to the use of seed storage of nutrients directly cultivated into young buds (mostly cotyledon spread, true leaves "heart exposed") or sprouts, such as bean sprouts, green bean sprouts, broad bean sprouts, and gracilaria Seedlings, dolls, radish vegetables, purple seedlings, citron, green shoots, fish tail red bean seedlings. Sprouts mostly refer to the accumulation of nutrients in perennial or perennial crops such as perennial roots, straight roots, rhizomes, or shoots, to grow shoots, shoots, young shoots, or shoots, such as straight roots of meat grown in dark conditions. Chicory (bud balls); dandelion buds, chrysanthemums, and other shoots or shoots cultivated in perennial roots; young shoots of ginger shoots, asparagus, etc. cultivated from rhizomes; and tree shoots, pea tips, pepper tips cultivated from plants and shoots. Wait a little. Sprouts can be divided into two types, in vitro sprouts and live sprouts, depending on the way they are sold. In vitro sprouts mainly refer to the body buds or seeds (species) of sprouts that are sold by cutting, harvesting, and harvesting the "spike", "brain", "tip", "head", and "shoot". Live sprouts are sprouts that are still in normal growth and survival when the commodity is ripe, and are sold as whole (pan) and whole seed (species) sprouts. The second section of sprout vegetable production technology mainly introduces seed (species) sprouts. First, the choice of production sites When the average temperature is higher than 18 Â°C, can be produced in open field. In winter and early spring, plastic sheds and other facilities can be used for production. For four-season production, idle buildings can be used for semi-enclosed and industrial intensive production. The production site must meet the following conditions: First, it is necessary to meet the suitable temperature required for the production of sprouts, so there should be air-conditioning or other heating facilities. Second, we must meet the certain conditions that sprout vegetable production needs to avoid light. The third is to have ventilation facilities to allow indoor natural or forced ventilation. The fourth is to have water supply and drainage capacity. The fifth is to consider the seed storage, sowing operation area, seedling tray cleaning area, product processing area, seed germination room or workshop and cultivation room of the overall arrangements and rational layout. Second, the preparation of production facilities 1, cultivation racks to improve the utilization of production sites, make full use of space, to facilitate the three-dimensional cultivation to use the cultivation frame. The cultivation frame is assembled from 30304 angle steel and is divided into 6 layers. Each layer can hold 6 seedling disks. Each rack has a total of 36 disks. The bottom is equipped with 4 small wheels (one of which is a universal wheel). Production floor moves group column. 2. The cultivation containers and the substrate cultivation containers should be selected from the light plastic vegetable seedling trays. Their specifications are: 62 cm in outer diameter, 23.6 cm in width, 3.8 cm in height, 57.8 cm in inner diameter, 21.8 cm in width, and 2.9 cm in height. Seedlings weigh 429 grams. To the right size, the bottom is flat, the overall shape is regulated and durable. Cultivation substrates should be clean, non-toxic, light weight, absorbent, strong water-holding capacity, easy-to-handle paper (newspapers, packaging paper, etc.), white cotton cloth, non-woven fabrics, foam sheets, and Perlite, etc., for the cultivation of the substrate is more appropriate. 3. Spraying equipment According to different growth stages of various sprouts, the sprayers (hook-up type) for sprays of sprays on the plant protection, spray guns, shower heads, or self-made pinholes for watering can be used (connected to the pipe leading from the water pipe) or Install micro-spray devices. 4, product transport tools Sprout product formation cycle is short, generally need to be sown every day on the market, so it needs to be equipped with transport tools, and more use of sealed cars, human flat-panel tricycles, bicycles and other transport tools. Third, sprout seedling vegetable cultivation technology 1, for the production of seed germination should be selected more than 95% of the germination rate, purity, clarity are high, large grains, shoots grow fast, thick, resistant, no mildew, High yield, slow fiber formation, soft quality and low price, stable and sufficient supply, fresh seeds without any pollution. 2. Seed cleaning and soaking (1) Cleaning should be carried out in advance for drying and dipping so that it can eliminate the defects of insects, disfigurement, deformity, Pythium, special grains and impurities. Because the seed of Citron can easily lose the germination rate under high temperature, it is necessary to use a new species that has not passed summer. Before use, it is necessary to rub the wings to remove the sundries, fruit shells and other impurities. Radish and alfalfa seeds can be used directly if they are of good quality. (2) Soaking Seeds can be soaked by cleaning the seeds. Usually, the seeds are washed with clean water at 20-30Â°C for 2-3 times, and after soaking, the amount of water must exceed 2-3 times of the seed volume. Soaking time is slightly longer in winter and slightly shorter in summer. Sophora pea seedlings and seed buds are generally immersed for 24 hours, and radish seedlings are suitable for 8-12 hours. The soaking is generally completed when the maximum seed water absorption reaches about 95%. The soaking is stopped and the panning is repeated 2-3 times. Gently rub, rinse, rinse the mucus attached to the seed coat, and take care not to damage the testa, then fish. Seed, drain off excess water and wait for sowing. 3, sowing and pregermination: usually used sowing, require a consistent amount of sowing on each plate, sowing uniform. Prior to sowing, except for small seeds such as green buds, which can be directly seeded by dry seeds, others should be sowed after soaking. Seed germination can generally be divided into one stage and two stages. (1) One-stage sowing and pre-germination Immediately after soaking, the seeds are sown, and the sown seedlings are platted together, and each set of six leaves is placed on a cultivation stand. This method is mostly used for peas, radishes and other sprouting faster, the emergence of shorter sprouting vegetables. The operation procedure is: washing the seedling plate â†’ soaking the matrix â†’ seedling plate laying substrate â†’ sowing seeds â†’ stacking shelves, placing moisturizing plates on the top and bottom of the plate (in the seedling plate with two layers of wet substrate) â†’ Workshop â†’ Carry out germination management â†’ Complete the germination out of the plate (layering the seedling plate on the shelf) â†’ Transfer to the production workshop. Management should ensure that the indoor temperature and humidity, but also to enhance the ventilation and ventilation and pay attention to the release time is not too late. (2) After two-stage sowing and pre-germination, that is sowing, conventional germination is carried out, and after the young shoots are dewy, the seeds are sown and the aggregating plates are used for germination. This method is mostly used for sprouts, such as the slow germination of Toona sinensis or other seedlings that are prone to mildew during the pre-germination. Its operating procedures are: washing seedlings â†’ spreading cotton cloth on seedlings â†’ placing seed (about 750 g per dry seed â€œdry seedâ€) on the seeds â†’ overlying the cotton cloth on the seeds â†’ placing moisturizing plates on the top and bottom â†’ placing in the priming workshop â†’ entering the germination Management â†’ complete germination to be broadcast. Management should maintain proper temperature, humidity and ventilation conditions. After 3-4 days, when most of the seed buds are 1-2 mm long, they should be sown in time for the second stage of germination. The second stage of the agglutination procedure is the same as the one stage. 4, after the release and after the release of the management (1) When the bud height has reached the standard plate, it should emerge in time. The seedlings of common radish are 1-2 mm in height, 0.5-1 mm in radish sprouts, and 0.5-1 mm in height when the purple seedlings are buds. (2) Lighting management When the seedling tray is moved into the production workshop, it should be placed in the low-light area where air relative humidity is relatively stable for one day, and then different measures should be taken according to the different requirements of environmental conditions for various sprouted vegetables. Radish shoots generally require strong light, purple seedlings and citrons, followed by radish sprouts. (3) Temperature and ventilation management The most suitable temperature for the formation period of several sprout vegetable products is: 18-23Â°C of radix beard seedlings, 20-23Â°C of purple seedlings, 20-25Â°C of radish seedlings. In management, it is necessary to perform temperature control management through heating, air conditioning, etc. As long as the indoor temperature can be maintained, the production workshop should be ventilated at least 1-2 times a day. Even in the case of low indoor temperatures, a short period of "short ventilation" should be performed. Ventilation should avoid direct cold wind blowing outside the bud, affecting the growth of sprouts. (4) Spraying and air humidity management should generally be performed 3-4 times a day (3 times in winter and spring, 4 times in summer and autumn) by spraying or spraying water, and the amount of water to control seedlings. The tray substrate is moist, but not a lot of water for the degree, but also wet the shop floor, in order to maintain indoor air relative humidity of about 85%. Pre-growth, watery days and low air temperatures should be less watering. 5, product sales to extend the product marketable, in the delivery and sales office to use cold storage (4-12 Â°C) facilities shipped.